Archive for the 'General' Category

Transcribing Keith Jarrett’s “A Melody at Night, with You”

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Keith Jarrett

The 1999 recording The Melody at Night, with You is one of Keith Jarrett’s most popular records. Originally created as a gift to his wife, his versions of songs from the Great American Songbook plus the traditional “Shenandoah” are permeated by a special atmosphere that makes the recording one of his most personal audio documents. Jarrett dispenses with the jazz soloist’s conventional emphasis on dexterity, the “clever” phrase and the virtuosic sleight-of-hand, and instead strips these songs to their melodic essence to gently lay bare their emotional core.

After many years of preparation, the sheet music for The Melody at Night, with You has now been published by Schott Music with Jarrett’s approval and the support of Jarrett’s label, ECM.

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Taking on the challenge of transcribing the sheet music was piano teacher Friedrich Grossnick, who lives in a tranquil rural area in northern Germany. A passionate Jarrett fan, Grossnick has been following the work of the exceptional musician for many years. He has always been particularly fascinated by Jarrett’s solo recordings, and in his free hours Grossnick devotes himself with meticulousness and respect to a little-known art: professional transcription.

Writing down what you hear and finding notes for sounds that are more than just a tone requires more than theoretical knowledge and piano technique. “Music is an expression of the soul. You have to try to understand the artist and his soul,” explains Grossnick as he describes his methodology.

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Friedrich Grossnick

Himself a serious pianist, Grossnick raves about The Melody at Night, with You, “I was fascinated by the incredible sensitivity and the subtleties in harmony and voice leading.” Despite the album’s catchiness, Jarrett only appears to repeat himself. After a phrase is played once, it appears the next time in a different light, sometimes redesigned rhythmically, sometimes harmoniously or melodically.

At the same time, though, Jarrett’s playing is characterized by a pronounced polyphony and wide chord positions that create special challenges in converting the music into notes, even once the pitches have been transcribed. Grossnick clarifies, “With Jarrett, the hands usually interlock. But which hand plays which voice? The notes should be easy to read and playable.”

Grossnick has taken great care in assembling this edition, and the result is an outstanding score that achieves maximum playability within the greatest tonal range, while faithfully recreating Jarrett’s interpretation.

Improve Your Music Studio’s Website with These Simple Headline Writing Tips

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Doug Hanvey

Guest post by Doug Hanvey.

Doug Hanvey studied piano and music composition at the Jacobs School of Music at Indiana University Bloomington and jazz piano with keyboard guru John Novello in Los Angeles. In addition to his musical training, Doug holds a master’s degree in adult education. He is the author of The Creative Keyboardist course and specializes in online piano lessons for creative adult beginners.

 

Music teachers are not obliged to be good writers, though it certainly comes in helpful when trying to communicate one’s services to potential students or parents. Fortunately, a few principles of clear, effective and persuasive writing can make all the difference to the success of your studio’s website.

This article will focus on how to write an effective headline for your studio website’s home page. Headlines are crucial because their major purpose is to get your website visitor’s attention. If you don’t get your visitor’s attention, you’ve already lost them.

Every headline for a web page should follow at least two (and possibly three) principles:

1. Get attention by grabbing the reader’s interest
2. Give them a reason to keep reading

If you are trying to get your website higher in the search engine rankings, your headline should also:

3. Include keywords that people use to search for music teachers in your area

Principle #1: Get Attention

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The most important principle is to get a visitor’s attention. Headlines get attention by appealing to self-interest. For example:

Piano Lessons That Kids Love

All Piano Lessons Aren’t Created the Same

The first headline gets attention by promising a benefit. The second headline gets attention by stimulating the reader’s interest in your offer.

Principle #2: Give Them a Reason to Keep Reading

After you get the reader’s attention, give them a reason to keep reading. Rule of thumb: try to get them to think, “I can read the rest of this quickly and it will be worth my time.”

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Ways to draw readers in include arousing curiosity, asking a question, making a provocative statement, or promising useful information. For example:

A Cutting-Edge Alternative to Traditional (and Dull) Vocal Instruction

Retired and Ready for Those Guitar Lessons You’ve Been Putting Off Your Whole Life?

The first headline offers a reason for continuing to read by making a provocative statement. The second headline does the same thing by posing a question. (It also selects the audience, which is another useful task for any headline.)

Principle #3: Include Keywords That People Use To Search For Teachers In Your Area

Note: If there are dozens or hundreds of competing websites in your area, you may be using your website as a calling card to which you send people by other means (such as a brochure or business card). In that case, focus on Principles #1 and #2 above. On the other hand, if you’re in a less competitive market and have a chance to get your site to the first page of the search results (or are determined to do so no matter what!), then you may wish to use search engine optimization (SEO) principles when writing your headline before applying Principles #1 and #2.

For better or worse, search engines like Google have imposed their own demands on headlines. If you are attempting to raise the position of your website in search engine results, you will probably want to write your home page headline for the search engines before writing it for human beings. (While these aren’t necessarily mutually exclusive in theory, they may be in practice.)

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The search engines look at headlines in particular to determine how relevant and useful it is. For SEO purposes it is especially important to use keywords in your headline that people are using to find your site. If research reveals that the most popular search phrase for flute teachers in your city is “flute lessons Peoria,” then your home page’s H1 headline will optimally include these keywords in a prominent position (preferably towards the beginning). Note that in terms of HTML (the language in which websites are written), each page of your website should have one H1 headline and no more.

You should also:

  • Make your H1 headline slightly different than your home page’s title tag, if only by a word or two
  • Use two or three H2 headlines to further describe your offer

Many resources are available for conducting keyword research, but one of the easiest approaches is to use Google’s “autocomplete” feature. If you search “voice lessons Chicago” autocomplete suggests related popular searches with keywords like “adults,” “private” and “south side.” If one or more of these keywords is particularly relevant to what you offer, you may want to include it in your headline, or at least somewhere on your site.

Two More Headline-Writing Principles

Finally, consider two additional principles when writing headlines:

  • Offer a complete message. Some people will never read past the main headline. By offering a complete message you can at least communicate the fundamentals of your offer.
  • Engage readers emotionally. Emotion sells. If you can engage a reader’s emotions, your headline is more likely to get them to take action.

If you come away with just one thing from this article, I hope it’s that having a headline on your website’s home page is important. If that headline also follows some or all of the above principles, even better!

 

Learning to Play Piano for the Very Young: The Perfect Pre-Primer for Preschoolers

Debbie Cavalier of Debbie and Friends, a music educator and Sr. Vice President at Berklee College of Music/DEO Berklee Online and one of the top children’s music artists in the nation, published Learning To Play Piano for the Very Young to provide a fun, engaging introduction to the keyboard. Cavalier created the book with her grandfather, noted arranger/composer Marty Gold.

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With this fun, new pre-primer piano method, young children may:

  • learn to read the treble clef and note names using colorful pictures
  • get started playing familiar melodies with their right hand
  • learn to play seven well-loved songs including favorites such as “Twinkle, Twinkle” and “Jingle Bells”
  • enjoy family sing-alongs with the guitar chord chart and lyrics included

Learning to Play Piano is designed for the parent and child to experience making music together. The pre-primer method book is filled with active participatory activities: writing in note names, tracing hands, writing in finger numbers, clapping, singing and playing melodies. The pull-out Keyboard Tent (included) provides a fun visual reference to associate notes on the page to keys on the piano. Children learn to play familiar melodies and gain the readiness skills needed to graduate to any standard piano method. The full-color book is filled with words of encouragement and praise from the familiar Debbie and Friends cartoon character.

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Keyboard Tent from Learning to Play Piano for the Very Young

Cavalier says Learning To Play Piano is a readiness method for the parent and child to experience together. “The songs included are familiar to kids, so there’s immediate satisfaction as they learn to play songs they know. Parents do not have to be trained musicians to enjoy working through the material with their child from start to finish,” explains Cavalier, who has written several other music method books for children.

Parents and kids who have tested the book are raving about the book’s kid-friendly features. “I LOVE the tracing of the hand and the little pictures of cats, dogs and elephants! What a clever way of associating the notes with letters,” says one parent. Dr. Gail Fischler a nationally recognized music teacher known as the “Piano Addict,” recommends the book as “a great way for families to introduce the piano to their young children and to get them excited about further musical study.“

A Few Parent Reviews:

DSC_0100“I placed it on the piano, and without any prompting, my 4-year-old, 7-year-old and wife (none of whom know anything about piano) discovered it and were all able to play a simple song with their right hand. All had smiles on their faces.”
—  Peter Apel, musician and dad

“The piano book arrived and the girls LOVE it. They went to the piano right after it arrived and started playing. It is a wonderful book.”
—  KC Mancebo, Clamourhouse Kids owner, mom

“All of a sudden I hear the piano playing. My 6-year-old son is playing songs and has learned the notes up to the letter G. He did this all on his own thanks to your book.”
—  George Triebenbacher, dad

About the Authors

DebbieCavalier

Debbie Cavalier

Debbie Cavalier is a Sr. Vice President at Berklee College of Music/CEO Berklee Online, and the lead in the award-winning kids/family band Debbie and Friends.

Marty Gold was an A&R man for RCA in the ‘50s and ‘60s and recorded dozens of records with the Marty Gold Orchestra. He was Debbie’s grandfather and piano teacher.

Tips on Practicing Music in the Time of COVID-19

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Dan Leeman

Guest post by Dan Leeman, a music educator and software consultant from Fargo, North Dakota. He taught middle school band and went on to found the Davies High School band program in 2011. Dan’s new site, notestem.com, combines his love of music, education, and technology. While the site is in its infancy, it will be home to music tools and resources that will be released in the coming months.

 

 

The impacts of Coronavirus and social distancing are being felt all around the world. Music teachers and students alike are wrestling with the effects on the music-making process, both logistically and emotionally.

One of the greatest opportunities during this phase of social distancing is to establish strong practice routines. Here are some tips to help make the most of your practice time.

Connect with Your Emotions

We often find ourselves in “hurry-up” mode. We’re practicing for an upcoming concert, recital, or audition, and we find ourselves in preparation for an event ahead of us. While that can be motivating, we may lose focus on the music itself.

Music and artistry have long been used to help people express pain, anxiety, and grief during periods of war and hardship.

Olivier Messiaen composed Quatuor pour la fin du temps (Quartet for the End of Time) as a prisoner of war in Nazi Germany during WWII. The piece was performed alongside three of his fellow prisoners outside on a freezing night in front of a crowded audience of prisoners and guards alike. “Never have I been listened to with such attention and such understanding,” Messiaen recalled.

Music can be a powerful tool: take time to compose, listen, practice, improvise or otherwise interact with your music in a way that allows you to express yourself emotionally.

Develop a Routine

It can be easy to fall into a bit of disarray when world events rock our sense of normalcy.

While our instinct may be to shed all of our daily routines in favor of bingeing Netflix in our pajamas, research shows that routines can be positive for our productivity and mental health.

Routine can be found in both the structure of our practice session: when, where, how long, and how frequent, as well as what our practice consists of.

By building practice into your daily routine, you’ll also keep your skills sharp for when we’re able to re-enter communal music-making.

Be Aware of Boundaries

While practicing our instruments may bring us joy and comfort, loud sounds in shared environments can be taxing for others.

If you live with your family or roommates, make sure to discuss shared expectations for when and where would be a good time to practice that is least disturbing to others.

Especially during this period of home confinement, people are scrambling to set up Zoom meetings, work, and learn remotely,

By offering to practice during a time that is most beneficial for everyone, you’re helping problem-solve while identifying your musical routine as something of importance to you.

Play Something You Enjoy

Depending on where you’re at on your musical journey, you may feel like your practice sessions are controlled by your circumstances.

Sometimes in high school and college I felt like I was always preparing for one audition or another.

Long tones, breathing exercises, lyrical etude, technical exercise… It was important, but it felt monotonous.

There are so many scenarios that require prescriptive practice. But given that nearly all concerts and public performances have been canceled or put on hold, this is your time to practice something purely for fun!

So whether it’s a favorite Disney classic, improv over some funky chord changes, transcribing a chart you heard on the radio, or simply pulling out a comforting piece from years past, this is your time.

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Guide to Remote Music Education

A black man sits in the living room of his apartment and plays a synthesizer. He composes music.

So much of what makes music fun for us is sharing it with others: playing in ensembles, performing concerts, worshipping with our congregations, and teaching our craft. Unfortunately, many of us have found the usual ways we gather together to share music abruptly curtailed recently. With the help of technology, though, teachers and students alike can access a plethora of opportunities for distance learning through online lessons and rehearsals, practice aids, self-instruction and advancement, and sheer repertoire exploration.

Here’s our guide to navigating distance music learning and instruction. Let us know if you have any tips or pointers, and we’ll be happy to share them with our community!

Moving Lessons & Rehearsals Online

Online lessons work. Not only will they help all of us maintain a sense of normalcy, they allow teachers and ensemble directors an opportunity to see and hear their students differently, which can help point out new areas of weakness and opportunities for improvement.

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Unless you’re trying to make online instruction a new permanent part of your pedagogy, you don’t need fancy technical equipment. Just use your computer, tablet or smartphone with a good Internet connection and, if you prefer, maybe headphones or earbuds.

You will need to develop a vision for how these lessons will look, but your considerations can be limited to the following:

  • What platform are you going to use?

VideoCallIconOrangeA lot of teachers like Zoom because it’s free and stocked with features, but other options include Skype, FaceTime, Google Hangouts, Facebook Messenger, WhatsApp, and many more.

If you’re more interested in something like a masterclass, lecture or group rehearsal, it might instead be worth checking out Crowdcast to make the experience more user-friendly. Though this is a paid service, there are longer session limits, an integrated chat for students, Q&A features, and the ability to invite students or guests to join on screen.

To do a virtual choir recording, try GarageBand or SoundTrap EDU (by SoundCloud) to have singers record on top of each other and hear the previously recorded parts as they go.

  • How will your setup look on camera?

Make sure you have enough space and lighting, and make sure that the elements that students need to see are easily visible on screen. Do a practice run with a fellow music teacher to check.

  • What tools do students have, and what will they need?

If students need to install software or access equipment like music stands and metronomes, let them know how and where they can get these in advance of their lessons or rehearsals.

  • What should the student be paying attention to during the lesson?

Some teachers, for instance, advise students to watch the stream of themselves during a one-on-one lesson. The streams acts like a mirror, letting the student see their body alignment and make automatic adjustments.

Expect a couple kinks when you’re getting started, but you’ll be able to iron these out pretty quickly and easily.

Developing a Practice Plan

planner-2428871_640Many students, especially those who are younger or at earlier stages in their musical education, don’t know how to practice effectively. While this is a challenge for any environment, distance learning requires students to be more self-directed.

When helping students develop a practice plan, consider these ideas:

  • Set a specific time and day for practice
  • Set specific goals: For instance, play a difficult passage correctly 5 times, rather than playing it correctly only once and moving on, to reinforce getting it right.
  • Break down the practice session into timed segments between warm-up, literature/technique study and performance.

Bookending a practice session with comfortable, familiar playing helps students feel good about playing and balance challenges with success.

Online Music Education Resources & Support

Whether you teach individual lessons or lead instrumental or choral ensembles, there are a number of music methods and series that have online tools to support instruction and practice.

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  • SmartMusic: This web-based suite of music education tools includes play-along accompaniment tracks, melody examples and masterclass videos, as well as enrichment pages with theory, music history and exercises, and access to a vast library of repertoire. Not only is this a supplement to the Suzuki Method and to the Sound Innovations series for both band and orchestra, this is also a powerful versatile platform to aid one-on-one lessons, remote classrooms and rehearsals, and individual practice.

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  • Essential Elements Music Class: A cloud-based service for elementary music classes, this tool offers recordings and classroom activity videos for hundreds of songs, as well as a comprehensive collection of teaching materials, including interactive activities, games, virtual Orff instruments, listening maps, recorder and ukulele units, custom lesson creation, and more.
  • Carus plus for choir: The carus music app contains recordings with amplified individual voice parts, tempo control and a marker feature for following the score to help choral singers learn new music from Carus quickly.

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  • Noteflight Learn: Free for music educators affected by closures through June 30, this web-based tool lets teachers create sheet music and composition assignments, and also lets students can also listen to, play or record any piece of music in the Noteflight library at any tempo in any key.
  • MusicFirst: A comprehensive Learning Management System for K-12 music education, this cloud-based suite of services offers an expansive library of lessons, assessments, content and complete courses to help teachers monitor students’ progress, make lesson plans and create assignments.
  • The Shed: This site is full of digestible lessons in theory, notation, rhythm, improvisation and more.
  • MetronomeOnline: This mobile app for iOS and Android helps organize and track practice time with time tracking, task lists, goal settings and a metronome.

Mark Hayes: Perfect Postludes

The postlude following a service makes creation resound with praise and allows the congregation to leave the church proclaiming God’s greatness. As the signal for the congregation to disperse, it should be a stirring exclamation point to the service that connects the worship experience to the secular world to which the crowd of people is about to return.

PerfectPostludesWhat makes a perfect postlude? Mark Hayes answers this question with his new collection, Perfect Postludes: Hymns and Spirituals to Close the Service, which contains the following ten selections:

  • Jesus Shall Reign
  • I’m Gonna Sing When the Spirit Says Sing
  • Joyful Day
  • Christ the Lord Is Risen Today
  • O for a Thousand Tongues to Sing
  • I Want Jesus to Walk with Me
  • To God Be the Glory
  • Noble March
  • Lead On, O King Eternal
  • They’ll Know We Are Christians

Here Hayes himself describes his collection and what makes it so useful for today’s church pianist:

 

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Mark Hayes

Choosing a postlude can be difficult at times because we are playing “going out” or “exit” music. Should it be stately or lively, peaceful or joyful? Whatever you choose, I hope you will find some new favorites in Perfect Postludes.

I have chosen well-known hymns and lively spirituals. Each piece grabs your attention from the very first measure as if to say, “Go forth in joy!” I’ve included two new compositions, “Noble March” and “Joyful Day,” that are perfect for processing or recessing. All the compositions are on the short side, with a few just over three minutes and many less than that. I hope you’ll find all the pieces useable at any time during worship, not just as “going forth” music.

How wonderful that we, as church pianists, get to send our congregants on their way with a spirit of joy and praise!

 

You can listen to two of the hymns, “Joyful Day” and “Lead On, O King Eternal,” with the score here:

Bright Star: Gareth Malone Gets the Whole School Singing!

In a January 2019 survey, BPI (British Phonographic Industry) found that British state schools had seen a 21% decrease in music provision over the previous five years, with this decrease disproportionately affecting schools serving less affluent communities.

HL00295016 Bright Star G Malone Cvr.inddTo address this situation, TV star and conductor Gareth Malone of BBC Two’s The Choir has joined forces with teacher Catherine de Sybel to create an exciting new music resource for schools, Bright Star: Inclusive Songs for Whole-Group Singing. Catchy, heartfelt, accessible and fun, the book includes a song co-written with Gary Barlow and Eliot Kennedy. Equally suitable for small groups, school choirs or the entire school, these engaging songs cover a wide range of themes including life choices, friendship and community, the environment, bereavement and growing up.

The songs are written to get the whole school singing confidently and are appropriate for all ages, with a particular focus on children aged 8–14, bridging the gap between Key Stages 2 and 3, when children are more likely to give up singing.

 

“We believe that singing has enormous benefits to children’s mental and physical well-being and that it should be an integral part of every child’s school day. The simple act of breathing and singing together can be so valuable in fostering a sense of community and shared values. We hope that the subject matter will resonate with pupils and their teachers and we have included some pointers for discussion in the introduction to each song. We want pupils of all faiths and none to experience the joy of singing and most importantly for every school to be a singing school!”

— Gareth & Catherine

 

Designed to be user-friendly for music teachers and particularly non-specialist teachers, the Bright Star pack includes full scores, demo and backing tracks to download, and photocopiable melody and lyric sheets. Introductory notes on the songs provide support in learning and performing, as well as discussion points for use in the classroom.

About Gareth Malone

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Gareth Malone

Gareth Malone OBE, is well-known around the world as a broadcaster, composer and choral animateur. He has won two BAFTAs for his BBC Two series The Choir, and has been making programs for the BBC for over 14 years. Other achievements include working as an artistic director for a Royal Opera House community opera, and working with orchestra and opera education departments, including the LSO, Philharmonia, Glyndebourne and ENO Baylis.

Gareth has had two number-one singles in the UK, the first in 2011 with the Military Wives Choir, followed by the Gareth Malone All Star Choir for Children in Need three years later. He has also had two number one albums: In My Dreams with the Military Wives, and his latest, Music for Healing, which is currently at the top of the specialist classical charts. His 2014 series The Big Performance 3 won the Royal Television Society award for best children’s television, and Gareth Goes to Glyndebourne won an International Emmy in 2011. In 2012 he was honored with an OBE by Her Majesty the Queen for services to music.

Gareth continues to compose with young people and to work with emerging artists. He has recorded with some of the leading performers in the UK and has just released his third album, Music for Healing.

About Catherine de Sybel

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Catherine de Sybel

Catherine de Sybel is a composer, pianist and music educator. She read music at the University of Cambridge and continued with postgraduate studies in composition at the École Normale de Musique in Paris, where she won the prestigious Premier Prix for her work for mezzo-soprano and piano, Imagination.

Her teaching career, spanning over twenty years, has encompassed work in mainstream, private and specialist schools, always driving inclusive music education to the forefront of the curriculum. As Head of Music at Elizabeth Garrett Anderson School, she facilitated outreach projects with the London Symphony Orchestra, London Sinfonietta and Orchestra of the Age of Enlightenment, as well as high profile performances for Her Majesty the Queen and Michelle Obama.

In addition to her work inside the classroom, she has led music composition workshops for trainee teachers at the University of Cambridge, mentored beginner teachers from the Institute of Education and worked as Schools Projects Manager at the London Symphony Orchestra.

Catherine believes passionately in the power of music to inspire and educate and has dedicated her career to enabling the finest musical opportunities for children from all backgrounds whilst encouraging young voices to be heard from every corner of her school.

Revisiting Mozart’s Great Mass in C minor

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Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart’s Mass in C minor (K. 427) stands alongside the Requiem (K. 626) as his most remarkable church composition. Today it enjoys almost cult status, first because of its monumentality, which is unique in Mozart’s sacred vocal music, and second because, like the Requiem, it partakes of the aura of the unfinished and mysterious. The exact circumstances that gave rise to it as a votive mass have eluded explanation to the present day. The same applies to the reasons why it was left unfinished and to many details of its first performance, which, as far as we know, took place at St. Peter’s Church, Salzburg, on October 26, 1783. Finally, the transmission of the original sources also raises many questions. Indeed, it is astonishing that the Mass, although left as a torso, was performed at all during Mozart’s final visit to Salzburg.

It seems that the work had not been commissioned but that it was written to fulfill a vow, which is vaguely discernable in the incomplete correspondence with this father, as he writes on January 4, 1783 in response to his father’s reproaches:

“It is quite true about my moral obligation and indeed I let the word flow from my pen on purpose. I made the promise in my heart of hearts and hope to be able to keep it. When I made it, my wife was not yet married; yet, as I was absolutely determined to marry her after her recovery, it was easy for me to make it — but, as you yourself are aware, time and other circumstances made our journey impossible. The score of half of a mass, which is still lying here waiting to be finished, is the best proof that I really made the promise.”

The mention of the Mass in this context makes clear that the work did not, as is occasionally presumed, owe its existence to an external incentive, such as the 1,200th anniversary of the Bishopric of Salzburg, officially celebrated in 1782.

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Constanze Mozart

By all appearances, his wife, Constanze’s, participation was an indispensable part of Mozart’s vow, and in fact this may have been one reason that the first performance of the Mass took place at St. Peter’s, rather than the Salzburg Cathedral, since in the eighteenth century, women were still not allowed to partake in musical performances for church worship. Indeed, the delicate and deeply moving soprano solos of the “Christe eleison” in the “Kyrie” and, perhaps most famously, the “Et incarnatus est” in the “Credo” (called “matchless” by Pope Francis, who proclaimed in an August 2013 interview that the aria “lifts you to God!”) are widely considered as love offerings by the composer to his soprano wife.

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Just as we must forever wonder about the voice that inspired Mozart to write such sublime music, we must also forever wonder how Mozart would have completed the Mass, for the work has come down to us in fragments. Moreover, not only were some sections of the Ordinary Mass left unset, with others only left in advanced drafts, even some of the sections that Mozart finished have come down to us incomplete.

MozartCMinorMassBärenreiter, working together with the International Mozarteum Foundation Foundation in Salzburg, has published a new edition of this work, reflecting the cutting edge of scholarship while doing justice to the needs of performers. This new edition completes and reconstructs movements according to high scholarly standards in order to come as close as possible to the work itself:

  • The “Kyrie” and “Gloria,” both of which survive complete in Mozart’s hand, are presented in a scholarly-critical Urtext edition.
  • The first two sections of the “Credo” have been meticulously completed by the editor, Ulrich Leisinger, drawing on original Mozart compositions, e.g. the aria “Deh vieni non tardar” from The Marriage of Figaro, and paying attention to a stylistically appropriate and transparent sound.
  • The “Sanctus” and “Benedictus” (with the “Hosanna”), which are either incomplete or survive only in secondary sources, have been reconstructed by the editor.

More specifically, editor Ulrich Leisinger comments on some of his key findings in this new edition:

  • On the use of trumpets and timpani in “Credo in unum Deum”: “To omit trumpets and timpani at the opening of the Credo, appropriately set in C major, is to contradict eighteenth-century church music practice.”
  • On the use of trombones in “Credo in unum Deum” when no wind score came down to us: “As with the Sanctus, Mozart probably would have entered the trombones [in the wind score], for he normally did not have them play continuously ‘colla parte’ with the lower voices.”

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  • On the absence of horns in “Et incarnatus est”: “The Figaro aria ‘Deh vieni non tardar’ K. 492 (1786) in particular reveals such striking parallels in its handling of the instruments that the expansion of the orchestration to include two horns, as is found in other reconstructions, has little justification. As in other scores, when Mozart prepared his staves, he entered systems which he did not necessarily make use of when he later filled in the instrumentation.”
  • On the reconstruction of the “Hosanna” fugue for double choir: “Of special significance is the observation that Mozart’s Salzburg church compositions for double choir invariably have the three trombones playing ‘colla voce’ together with choir I.”

Reconstructed and added parts are rendered in small print. Sections without any known sources are left out in this edition. Rounding off the publication are an extensive Foreword (Ger/Eng) and a detailed Critical Commentary (Eng).

The premiere of Ulrich Leisinger’s new edition was given in April 2019 in the Elbphilharmonie Hamburg by the Hamburg State Philharmonic Orchestra and the ChorWerk Ruhr under the baton of Kent Nagano. The first Austrian performance took place in Salzburg in August 2019 in the Great Hall of the Mozarteum, with Andrew Manze conducting the Salzburg Camerata to rousing applause from audience and critics alike.

Darcy Stanley: Seasonal Settings for Worship

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Darcy Stanley

Guest post by Darcy Stanley introducing her new collection of sacred piano music, Seasonal Settings for Worship. Stanley, a composer, arranger, lyricist and orchestrator, has published many choral works, solo and duet arrangements, piano arrangements and orchestrations. As a pianist, she has been designated Permanent Professional Certified Teacher of Music in Piano from Music Teachers National Association, and has served as adjudicator for various music festivals and piano competitions. Stanley worked as adjunct music professor at Faith Baptist Bible College for 15 years, teaching piano and Choral Writing and Arranging. She and her husband, Tim, live in Greenville, SC, where she is pianist and director of orchestra and instrumental ensembles at Cornerstone Baptist Church.

 

SeasonalSettingsForWorshipLet everything that has breath praise the Lord! (Psalm 150:6) I have had the joy of praising the Lord through music since I was a child. As a little girl, I found great joy in playing the piano and singing for anyone who would listen. My sweet grandfather was my favorite and most frequent audience!

Many years have passed since those early days, and I am thankful for the numerous opportunities I have had to serve the Lord and praise Him with music. Serving as church pianist for most of my adult life has given me an appreciation of the importance of music in worship services. Pianists need to be prepared with more than just a few of their favorite hymns. Special services and occasions require music that will specifically enhance the worship service with an intentional purpose.

I have enjoyed preparing this collection of piano arrangements to meet the needs for various occasions of the church year. I love the great hymns that I have been singing since childhood. I have written arrangements of some of my favorites and have given them a fresh sound, while still keeping them in a style that fits the lyrics.

Make a joyful noise to the Lord, all the earth! Serve the Lord with gladness! Come before His presence with singing! (Psalm 100:1-2) It is my desire that you will sing the words of these great hymns in your heart as you play them. May you find great joy in giving glory to God in all that you do!

 

Listen to two of the hymns from Seasonal Settings for Worship, “Just As I Am” and “Jesus Christ Is Risen Today,” here:

A Short Foray into Beethoven’s Variations

Guest post by Dr. Dominik Rahmer, editor at G. Henle Verlag.

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The formal technique of “variations” played an important role in Beethoven’s work throughout his entire life. Critic Paul Bekker wrote in 1911, “Beethoven begins with variations,” and indeed this is true not only of the character of his oeuvre, but also of its chronological progression: Beethoven’s very first published work was his 9 Variations on a March by Dressler, WoO 63, which appeared in 1782.

DresslerTheme

Dressler Variations, WoO 63: Beginning of the Theme

Similarly, we could add that Beethoven also ends with variations. The Diabelli Variations, Op. 120, which are amongst his last piano works, not only crown his creativity, but also, in the history of piano variations, are probably equaled only by Bach’s Goldberg Variations.

The panoply of variations within his multi-movement works also indicates how fundamental this technique is in Beethoven’s musical thinking. Consider, for example, the profound closing movement of the last piano sonata, Op. 111, or the grand finale of the 3rd Symphony.

Though the themes of these movements were usually Beethoven’s own inventions, here we will focus on the pieces composed as independent variation sets on popular melodies. This vantage point reveals some interesting finds.

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Countess Josephine von Clary-Aldringen (1777-1828)

It lets us see, for example, that Beethoven composed variations for the mandolin. In 1796 Beethoven composed his Andante with 6 Variations, WoO 44b, together with other short pieces for mandolin and piano, for the Countess Josephine von Clary-Aldringen, who played the instrument. Incidentally, these variations can also be played unmodified on the violin, thereby constituting an ideal (and easier) addition to Beethoven’s only “real” variations for the violin, the 12 Variations for Violin on “Se vuol ballare” by Mozart, WoO 40.

The vast majority of Beethoven’s variations were, however, written for piano solo, which was an ideal vehicle for Beethoven, one of the greatest piano virtuosos of his time, to present his own pianistic and compositional skills to audiences. His 24 Variations on “Venni Amore” by Vincenzio Righini, WoO 65, require so much technical skill that when he visited the renowned pianist Franz Xaver Sterkel in 1791, Sterkel declared these variations too difficult. In response, Beethoven not only performed his complete composition at the piano from memory, but, to the astonishment of the listeners, also virtuosically improvised further variations on the theme.

VenniAmore

Variations on “Venni Amore,” WoO 65: Beginning of the 9th Variation

Amongst the more pianistically demanding works of this kind are the 7 Variations on “Kind, willst du ruhig schlafen,” WoO 75, a canzonetta from an opera by the now almost entirely forgotten composer Peter von Winter. The opening of the text could be reminiscent of a kind of lullaby, though not at all suited to the coquettish melody in 2/4 time.

WinterTheme

Variations on “Kind, willst du ruhig schlafen,” WoO 75

And, in fact, it’s actually a facetious song by three girls wanting to talk a friend out of her heartache:

Child! If you’d easily sleep,
Follow my custom,
And flirt, just as with monkeys,
Also with the men:
Tease and taunt them.

Don’t let them steal your heart!
This is not clever.
False are the souls of men,
Treach’rous, full of scams:
Nobody’s good for anything.
[…]

The German libretto of this “heroic-comic” opera, which takes place in the Peruvian Inca period, can be found here in the Bavarian State Library digital collections.

Among Beethoven’s collection of variations is also a shorter piece for piano trio, Variations in E-Flat Major, Op. 44, which stands as an alternative to the more widely known 10 Variations on “Ich bin der Schneider Kakadu,” Op. 121a. The former is based on “Ja, ich muss mich von ihr scheiden,” a jealous husband’s irate aria from Dittersdorf’s misleadingly titled opera, Das Rote Käppchen (Little Red Cap). This opera has nothing to do with the fairy tale of Little Red Riding Hood, but instead is a marriage farce about a young woman suffering from her elderly husband’s morbid jealousy, curing him of it with a trick: an allegedly miraculous red cap.

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Count Ferdinand Ernst von Waldstein (1762-1823)

Another lesser-known piece among this collection of variations is the 8 Variations on a Theme by Count Waldstein, WoO 67, named for Count Ferdinand Ernst von Waldstein, to whom the famous “Waldstein” Sonata (Sonata No. 21 in C Major, Op. 53), was dedicated. Waldstein was Beethoven’s first important patron in Bonn and sponsored the young composer’s trip to Vienna in 1792, but he also played the piano well and even personally contributed the theme (possibly improved upon by Beethoven) for this set of variations.

The 6 National Airs with Variations, Op. 105, and 10 National Airs with Variations, Op. 107, both based on catchy folk melodies, also offer a treasure trove of pretty variations that are often overlooked. Though the pieces require an accomplished piano player, the flute part, which can also be performed on the violin, is deliberately kept simple and could very well be mastered even by younger students. Moreover, since Beethoven’s flute part was added only ad libitum at the request of the person commissioning them, these variations can also be performed as piano solos — an ideal short, smart encore for a Beethoven piano recital.

Even after 250 years of Beethoven, there is still so much to discover in his oeuvre!


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